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Ilha do Desterrovol. DOI: Both novels deal with exploitation, discrimination, racism and the dispossession of the Indigenous Other and their miscegenated descendants, from a non-Indigenous, i. Elements that are crucial for settler colonialism, such as ambivalence, indigenisation and mechanisms of disavowal and transfer in several of their guises, are examined, compared and contrasted. Several parallels can be drawn between them in that respect: at a time when, more in Brazil than in Australia, as we shall see, men dominated the realm of letters, not only did Queiroz and Prichard manage to make a living out of writing fiction, journalistic texts and criticism, among other genres, but they also became prominent figures in the cultural milieus of their countries, living long, active and, at times, polemic lives and having their works translated into several languages.
Their achievements are impressive. She was also the translator of dozens of novels, plays, biographies and other works into Portuguese. Both women were awarded literary prizes and grants. Although Prichard was well into her twenties when Queiroz was born, they published their best-known novels within a one-year period: Coonardoo was published in and O Quinze in However, Darlene Sadlier published extracts of the novel under the title The Year Fifteena title I will adopt in this paper.
Coonardoo and The Year Fifteen have made their authors famous and have been continuously reprinted, especially the latter, which has had more than Brazilian editions in 87 years. Queiroz was only 18 when she became a celebrity writer. Those factors led some of her first critics and admirers, such as the modernist icon Mario de Andrade, to think that The Year Fifteen was the work of a man under a female pseudonym.
Nearly 50 years later, under great clamour, Queiroz would become the first woman to be allowed into the Brazilian Academy of Letters, inone year after the regulation that permitted only men into the Academy was revoked. Prichard and Queiroz were attracted to communism, both contributed to the inauguration of the Communist Party Dark and Ponta grossa single again their regions and both felt betrayed by it.
They recommended that Queiroz should edit the text, making the wealthy boss the villain instead of the worker. In indignant response Dark and Ponta grossa single again this interference with her freedom of expression, Queiroz left the Party.
Censured by her communist colleagues for being insufficiently communist, her work failed to please the militarist federal government for the very opposite reason, and in the Vargas administration, accusing her of subversion, sent her to prison and withdrew her first three novels from the market. In the s she travelled extensively in Russia to gather material for her pamphlet The Real Russia published in When it was suggested that she should submit the manuscript to the Communist Party prior to its publication, Prichard refused to comply.
Fortunately, that intervention never came to pass Throssell In Brazil, the period was characterised by recession, high inflation and harsh military intervention. Democracy was not consolidated, the old rural oligarchies that had ruled the country since before the republic, instill fought each other for influence. Coups were expected events of national life. As an influx of international investment encouraged the industrialisation process, long-established monocrop and pastoralist agricultural practices were challenged.
However, the huge social and economic gaps between social classes remained unaddressed. For administrative purposes, Brazil is divided into five macro regions established officially in the s: North, Northeast, Centre-East, Southeast and South. Although these regions are territorially vast and present a great deal of internal diversity, Brazilians are frequently bound to stereotypically identify them especially if they are not their own region with a few of their positive or negative characteristics; thus the North Region could be associated with forests and Indigenous peoples - as well as deforestation and land conflicts; the South Region with cold weather, pampas vegetation, cattle farms and European immigration - and with separatist movements, and so on.
The decade in Australia was characterised by the shift from the popular poetry and short stories, that since the s had been considered mainstream literary forms, to the novel. Unlike the Brazilian scene, where women writers were still a minority, the flourishing of the Australian novel in that period also meant a better balance in terms of gender.
Drusilla Modjeska 5 surveys the novels produced from toconcluding that the period was unprecedented in the history of Australian literature, as nearly half of the novels were written by women, who also stood out in terms of the quality of their work. As David Carter points out, from the s to the early s, social disturbances, exacerbated by the Depression, fascism and the possibility of war, were regarded by female and male Australian authors alike as imminent threats to culture.
Diversity was also relevant to counteract the tendency to homogeneity pervasive in traditional Australian literary histories. The diverse aspects of Australian life that Prichard sought to reveal in Coonardoo were shocking occurrences in remote areas that urban coastal Australians and traditional fiction had preferred to overlook.
The novel centres on the relationship between Coonardoo, an Indigenous woman, and her white boss, Hugh Watt. Coonardoo belongs to the Gnarler alternative spelling for Ngarla or Ngaala-wangga People, whose ancestral lands at the time of the narrative are within the territory of the fictional Wytaliba Station in the Pilbara region, in North-Western Australia. Prichard used her own travel experiences in the region as inspiration for the novel. Coonardoo spends her days as a house-servant and goes back to the uloo in the evening to be with her people.
Hugh and Coonardoo have been life-long friends and have developed a strong affective connection, as well as a common love of Dark and Ponta grossa single again land. After the marriage falls apart and Mollie returns to Perth, Coonardoo and Winni, her child with Hugh, leave the uloo and move permanently into the homestead. By the time Coonardoo returns to her country to die, Wytaliba, ravished by drought and deprived of the people who genuinely love it since Hugh has sold it to Sam Geary and the Gnarler have leftis only a shadow of its initial grandeur.
Space is also a central element of the so-called literatura da seca drought literature in Brazil, of which The Year Fifteen is one of the best-remembered titles. The prolonged dry spell sets two plots in motion. This action also means dismissing the live-in farmhands and their families, making them instantly unemployed and homeless. The second plot depicts the struggles of one of these impoverished, landless families. These travellers share stories of poverty, famine, disease, death and injustice. In the expression did not have a Nazi connotation, being used to describe encampments of people guarded by the police and built - or, rather, improvised - to stop drought refugees from entering the town.
Although a love story between two people from similar social classes and ethnic backgrounds could be more easily fulfilled here than in CoonardooQueiroz does not provide a traditional romantic solution to the plot. Coonardoo and settler colonialism.
InCatherine Duncan heard that Prichard was planning to destroy some of her personal papers and manuscripts. Not a solid, one-sided slab in any case, but with an infinite of transparencies and obliquities which she reveals briefly in her writing and to friends […]. Half a century after her death, the multifaceted author that KSP has become still incites controversy. The Austlit database displays more than entries of critical texts on Katharine Susannah Prichard. This dissonance might be rooted in the fact that Prichard is a non-Indigenous woman trying to tell a story from the perspective of an Indigenous one her entitlement to do so is also a matter of contention.
Because it focuses on the settler imagination and problematises the representations of the settler and the Other created by it, the recent critical field of Settler Colonial Studies is a suitable analytical tool with which to study Coonardoo and other complex novels. The primary object of settler-colonization is the land itself rather than the surplus value to be derived from mixing native labour with it.
Though, in practice, Indigenous labour was indispensable to Europeans, settler-colonization is at base a winner-take-all project whose dominant feature is not exploitation but replacement. The logic of this project, a sustained institutional tendency to eliminate the Indigenous population, informs a range of historical practices that might otherwise appear distinct - invasion is a structure, not an event Wolfe, Another relevant aspect is that settler colonial studies regard fictional texts as legitimate sources for the observation and analysis of settler colonial phenomena.
Therefore, fictional plots with a factual background such as Coonardoo provide a rich field for settler colonial studies. The novel comprises a historically identifiable period that has been thoroughly analysed by Marion Austin-Crowe. There seems to be no qualms about the exploitation of the labour of Indigenous children or their separation from their families so that they can go droving with the settlers.
As for the passivity of the Australian Continent, the protagonist herself would stand for the quiet land, starting with her deeply symbolic name:. She could see low brown huts down there beside Dark and Ponta grossa single again well, a deep narrow well the Gnarler had dug long ago at a little distance from the creek.
Coonardoo they called it, the dark well, or the well in the shadows. Coonardoo had been named after the well near which she was born.
The huts were the huts of her people Prichard 2. The combined characteristics of depth and darkness suggest the mysterious ontological bond with the land, something settlers are eager to possess. Furthermore, in the harsh environment of the Western Australian outback a shadowy well could allude to a miniature oasis, a source of life and relief in the midst of extreme aridity. Molly is a frustrated city girl whose initial dislike of station life turns gradually into hatred, and who eventually leaves the management of the household and the care of her five daughters to Coonardoo.
An expression of suffering and fortitude deepened on her face Prichard Coonardoo - who has promised Mrs Bessie to take her place and look after Hugh - quietly follows him from a distance and is eventually discovered:. This was ish adventure they were on. His gratitude shook him as he thought of how she had followed and watched over him during the last weeks.
It yielded to yearning and tenderness. Deep inexplicable currents of his being flowed towards her. Awakened, she came to kneel beside him, her eyes the fathomless shining of a well in the shadows. They slept beside the fire near the clump of dead mulga until it was morning. Hugh started up to find Coonardoo stirring embers of the fire. They had walked back into the camp then. Prichard The sequence of the death of the mother, followed closely by a sexual encounter with her surrogate to be later followed by guilt, rejection and ragehas clear psychoanalytical inferences.
The ambivalent feelings of guilt and desire to own the land are pointed out by Veracini as characteristics of the settler mindset. Hugh loved her; but she was less real, much less his own than that son of a whirlwind. Always as he leant over, played with and held the baby, he thought of Winni. His affection for the boy plagued him.
Was it because he reproached himself for the existence of the child? Hugh could not tell. Did he reproach himself really?
Coonardoo had been the one sure thing in his life when his mother went out of it. He had grasped her. She was a stake, something to hang on to. More than that, the only stake he could hang on to. He had to remind himself of her dark skin and race.Dark and Ponta grossa single again
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